SECTION A

The reality of computer hardware and software in life:
1 – Eden (Murray), “Inadequacies of Neo‑Darwinian Evolution as a Scientific Theory,” Mathematical Challenges to the Neo‑Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution, Wistar Institute, 1966. 2 – Dawkins (Richard), River Out of Eden,1995p17. 3 – OOLprize, Origin of Life Prize, www.us.net/life/ 4- Trevors (J. T.) & D. L. Abel, “Chance and Necessity Do Not Explain the Origin of Life,” Cell Biology International: 28, 2004p729‑739. 5 – Abel (David), “The Cybernetic Cut’: Progressing from Description to Prescription in Systems Theory,” The Open Cybernetics and Systemics Journal (2),2008, p252‑262. 6 – Abel (David), “The GS (genetic selection) Principle,” Frontiers in Bioscience (14), 1/1/09p2959‑2969. 7 – Abel (David), “The Biosemiosis of Prescriptive Information,” Semiotica, 1/4/09, p1‑19. 8 – D’Onofrio (David) & Gary An, “A Comparative Approach for the Investigation of Biological Information Processing: an Examination of the Structure and Function of Computer Hard Drives and DNA,” Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 2010, 7:3. 9- Venter (Craig), Interview – Venter (Craig), CBS 60 minutes Interview, 6/12/11..

SECTION B

The probabilities of a self-replicating cell and a properly folded protein:
1 – Morowitz (Harold), Energy Flow in Biology, 1979, p99. 2- Axe (Doug), “Estimating the Prevalence of Protein Sequences Adopting Functional Enzyme Folds,” J Mol Biol. 8/27/04, p1295‑1315. 3- Axe (Doug), “The Case Against a Darwinian Origin of Protein Folds,” BIO‑Complexity, 2010(1), p1‑12.

SECTION C

Low probability and operationally impossible:
1 – Abel (David), “The Universal Plausibility Metric (UPM) & Principle (UPP),” Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 12/3/09U, 6:27. Low probability and operationally falsified if UPP < 1, which for the 1070 maximum chemical reactions on the Earth falsifies any probability < 10-70.

SECTION D

The need for choice contingency for functional information:
1 – Corning (Peter) & Stephen Kline, “Thermodynamics, Information and Life Revisited, Part I: to Be or Entropy,” Systems Research, 4/7/00, p273‑295. 2 – Corning (Peter), “The Re‑emergence of Emergence’: A Venerable Concept in Search of a Theory,” Complexity 7(6), 2002, p18‑30. 3 – Abel (David) & Jack Trevors, “Three Subsets of Sequence Complexity and Their Relevance to Biopolymeric Information,” Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 8/11/05, 2:29. 4 – Abel (David) & Jack Trevors, “Self‑Organization vs Self‑Ordering Events in Life‑Origin Models,” Physics of Life Reviews (3), 2006, p211‑228. 5 – Durston (Kirk), David Chiu, David Abel, & Jack Trevors, “Measuring the Functional Sequence Complexities of Proteins,” Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 12/6/07, 14 pgs. 6 – Abel (David), “Complexity, Self‑organization, and Emergence at the Edge of Chaos in Life‑Origin Models,” Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 93 (4), 2007, p1‑20. 7 – Barbieri (Marcello), “Biosemiotics: a New Understanding of Life,” Naturwissenschaften (95), 2/19/08, p577‑599 8 – Abel (David), “The Cybernetic Cut’: Progressing from Description to Prescription in Systems Theory,” The Open Cybernetics and Systemics Journal (2), 2008, p252‑262. 9 – Gibson (D.), J. Glass, C. Lartigue, V. Noskov, R. Chuang, M., Algire, G. Benders, M. Montague, L. Ma, M. Moodie, C. Merryman, S. Vashee, R. Krishnakumar, N. Assad‑Garcia, C. Andrews‑ Pfannkoch, E. Denisova, L. Young, Z. Qi, T. egall‑Shapiro, C. Calvey, P. Parmar, C. Hutchison III, H. Smith, C. Venter, “Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome,” Science Express, 5/20/10, p1‑12.

For more information visit: programmingoflife.info and DNAtranslation.info